Watching some scary films for Halloween got us thinking about our bid horror stories over the years. These are just a few examples, sure there are many more if we thought about it (although we try very hard to forget them!)
Being sat in a hotel room at 2am the day before submission, trying to translate our bid speak into formal contract terminology.
Uploading a huge multi-partner £50million bid to an online portal, all the bid team stood around watching, with the documents so large they were taking forever to upload. Finally submitted and accepted with 43 seconds to go.
Proof reading a global opportunity with a colleague from 4pm to midnight, then back up at 5am to finish off. The week before Christmas. Independence Day was on in the background; have not been able to watch it since.
First bid for a new employer. Hard copy required – courier was late picking it up, then got lost. Sent out with a junior employee in a taxi while ringing the client to beg them to accept it…
Sat in a deserted office the night before a Bank Holiday, awaiting a courier delivery of a new contract for signing the next week.
Hitting roadblocks at every stage of the process when the bid sponsor wouldn’t take on board any suggestions from the rest of the team – only for them to change their minds at the last minute. Cue mass re-write…
The client who sent out hundreds of clarification responses one message at a time.
Working with a teaming partner whose pricing put us £50k above budget, and who refused to take anything out of their model.
Having a member of the team going into labour the morning of the client presentation, and prepping someone to jump in!
The multi-work area global bid that landed on Christmas Eve and was due on January 2nd. Why do clients do that?!
An e-auction that was originally booked for 30 minutes, and would extend by 10 minutes if someone placed a new bid in the last two minutes. Three hours we sat in that room…
The huge re-tender that was in progress for 18 months and we were incumbents – only to lose it on price, undercut by several £million. Devastated doesn’t cover it!
Being asked to pick up a bid started by a colleague whom our manager had been asked to remove by the lead contributor. Awkward… and a week left to turn it around. Don’t think daylight was seen that week.
And yet, despite all the horror stories, this is still a job we love to do! Most of the time…!
Following on from our blog linking Disney films to the bid team and bid process, the journey through the Disney+ back catalogue has continued, and this week it is the turn of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Who am I kidding? Anyone who knows me, knows I’m a complete Marvel-obsessive and probably can’t believe it’s taken this long for this one to appear!
Taking it back to basics, we’re looking at the core Avengers team – the original MCU 6 – and where we can find them in our bid teams. In no particular order (although clearly Cap is the best…):
Captain America – brave, loyal, disciplined, committed to the cause, and the defacto leader of the team, Cap has to reflect the Bid Manager (although with probably more bad language on the bid side). Your Captain America brings the team together, ensures everyone knows their role and responsibilities, and gives encouragement where it’s needed. Captain Bid sees the long game, and how the team’s actions during the bid can impact the submission. Not afraid to make a stand where needed, and even if it means going against a colleague.
And so to the “Science Bros” of Tony Stark (Iron Man) and Bruce Banner – these are our SMEs, the technical, operational and financial experts in our bid team. Sometimes throwing ideas into the mix that you think will never work, yet somehow a few days later they have a full technical spec or working prototype. They’re the members of the bid team who look at the submission from every angle, ensuring the solution’s success. And yes, often the ones whose content you can’t understand and you just have to hope someone on the evaluation team does!
Black Widow – trained for years, a distinct and specialist skillset, and often operating under the radar of the main bid team, is our commercial lead. They stealthily assess the bid solution, the pricing model and client contract, taking in all known and unknown quantities before executing their attack, pinning the team down until we cut those five roles, 20 laptops and weekly team-building spa day we don’t need.
Hawkeye – taking a bird’s eye view of the bid, our red team reviewers. Often not as involved throughout the process as the other team members, and sometimes off doing their own thing until the end. The red team has an ability to see the full picture from afar of what is happening, then focusing in on the core win themes, any issues and risks, and what might be missing from the bid.
Thor – the God of the bid team is the bid sponsor, often your CEO/MD/Ops Director. Strong and up-front, they wield the power of the purse strings. They will encourage – in their own way – but may also be uneasy of being challenged in their position. Of course, they may not always think things through and take someone’s head off in a moment of madness (not literally, hopefully), but that’s the risk we take!
And finally, breaking the rules of the MCU 6 a little, but an honourable mention for the Hulk, Bruce Banner’s alter ego. The unknown quantity who suddenly enters the team, causes chaos, smashes up the solution and disappears again.
Storytelling in bids has been a topic of much conversation over the past few years, with interesting sessions from Sarah Hinchliffe and Ashley Kayes recently on the APMP calendar.
In Ashley’s session in the recent Winning Business Virtual Experience, she highlighted the link to Disney – ‘storyboarding’ as a concept started in the Disney studios. This got me thinking about the similarities between many Disney animated films and the bid process. There is a chance continued lockdowns are starting to take their toll… or just that I watch too many Disney films. But there are some shared themes!
The Little Mermaid
The Disney version: The film tells the story of a mermaid Princess named Ariel, who dreams of becoming human and falls in love with a human prince named Eric, which leads her to make a magic deal with an evil sea witch to become human and be with him.
The bid version: The challenger firm dreams of being “the one” and usurping the incumbent. They look for the insider knowledge, doing a deal to repay the favour with a job if it works out well…
The Disney version: Wendy Darling and her brothers John and Michael go on an adventure to Never Land with Peter Pan (the boy who never grew up) and his pixie friend Tinkerbell. Peter leads a band of Lost Boys who spend their time hiding from and fighting with Captain Hook. After helping Peter win a battle with Hook, the children fly back home. Peter and the Lost Boys return to Never Land.
The bid version: Peter and the Lost Boys are the MD and the operational and technical experts the bid manager (Wendy) tries to round up and control to input into the bid; usually seen all the time, now the bid has come out, they’ve gone into hiding.
The Black Cauldron
The Disney version: Set in a mythical land during the Early Middle Ages, the evil Horned King hopes to secure an ancient magical cauldron that will aid him in his desire to conquer the world. He is opposed by a young swineherd named Taran, the young princess Eilonwy, the bard Fflewddur Fflam, and a wild creature named Gurgi who seek to destroy the cauldron, to prevent the Horned King from ruling the world.
The bid version: Two bidding firms – one of which is the incumbent – battle over a third party expert who will give them the edge in the bid.
The Disney version: The film follows Aladdin, an Arabian street urchin, who finds a magic lamp containing a genie. He disguises himself as a wealthy prince, and tries to impress the Sultan and his daughter.
The bid version: The bid team that exaggerates or even makes up its experience to get in the door with the client and their advisors. Beware – the lack of experience will be found out!
The Disney version: A lost, young princess with magical long blonde hair yearns to leave her secluded tower. Against her mother’s wishes, she accepts the aid of an intruder to take her out into the world that she has never seen.
The bid version: A client has been with the same service provider for some time. The service delivery team has pushed back on their MD as they feel things can be improved. The client is now coming out to bid for the first time to find something different.
Big Hero 6
The Disney version: Hiro Hamada, a young robotics prodigy, forms a superhero team to combat a masked villain.
The bid version: In probably the most obvious bid link of the Disney back-catalogue, the bid manager and sponsor pull together a crack bid team with differing skillsets to outbid the competition.
And finally, an honourable mention to Inside Out– set in the mind of a young girl, where five personified emotions (Fear, Sadness, Anger, Disgust and Joy) try to lead her through life. Definitely all the emotions the Bid Manager goes through during the bid process…
How often do you team with a partner organisation (or multiple partners) to deliver a bid submission? Your organisation might only team on a complex, strategic bid, or you may partner on any bid where you feel you need a little extra oomph or sparkle.
One of the key questions at the early bid pursuit decisions is whether you can deliver all the client’s requirements on your own. You should answer the need to partner question honestly for every opportunity, and in comparison to your known (and unknown) competitors. Can you deliver all the requirements as a sole bidder, or are there gaps in expertise or experience for which you need a partner firm(s)? And if the latter, should you lead or contribute in that relationship? What are the relative strengths and weaknesses in both approaches? Which gives you the best win probability against the client’s requirements? The APMP Body of Knowledge (BOK) provides a template to help you carry out this exercise.
Fast forward a few days and you’ve conducted your appraisal, know who you need to partner with, and have agreed to team up. How do you actually decide who leads the bid? Who will be responsible for leading the bid production, submission and relationship for this opportunity?
According to the BOK: “There is a complicated, delicate balance of strategy and tactics required to assemble a winning team. While an effective teaming strategy can significantly improve a bidder’s win probability, a poorly executed strategy can create serious performance, reputation, legal, and financial problems.”
With this in mind, your bid lead should be the partner with strongest relationship with the client, the most relevant demonstrable experience, or the organisation who will be responsible for the majority of deliverables/requirements. For each teaming decision, you should assess the opportunity in detail and choose a bid lead for the right reasons. You should not pick a lead party simply because it’s one or the other’s ‘turn’, or the opportunity came into them (either directly, or through their registration on a client portal).
Imagine your client is procuring for a new software solution, with a requirement for underlying MI analysis. You can deliver all the requirements in the ITT, but partnering with a specialist MI firm will give you an edge. Who would lead? If you’ve worked with the MI firm before, and last time you led the bid, it might be tempting to let them lead to ‘even it out’. However, to the client, this is likely to be the wrong decision. Put yourself in the position of evaluator. Would you not wonder why the firm who would deliver the majority of the work is not leading on the bid?
While you may not need to do this on all bids, there are numerous formal structures you could set up, such as the traditional prime/sub, joint ventures (where a new legal entity is established), or a partnership/alliance where each party contracts with the client. Whether you go formal or more informal, you should negotiate a teaming agreement as early as possible (if you don’t already have one in place with the partner firm(s)), setting out the legal, operational and financial aspects of the relationship.
There should always be a clear rationale on who leads the bid. Which lead organisation offers the maximum competitive advantage and highest win probability? Which makes the most sense to the client’s specific opportunity? Don’t just hand off the lead because you led last time. You could more damage putting forward the wrong team than not partnering at all.
For this week’s blog, we have something a bit different – Bidonomy is famous! Our article about how important the human factor is in effectively managing bid software has been published by APMP on its Winning The Business website.
In part one of our blog last week, we examined how Belbin’s team roles model can help us look inwardly at our bid team. If Belbin provides an internal view, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can help us look externally to the client to help us really understand what is important to them and how we pitch our response.
Carl Dickson of PropLibrary has previously translated Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to making better decisions in the bid process; but we’re looking here specifically from the perspective of the client’s requirements and how we meet them.
An External View: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
In Maslow’s model, the needs at the lower end of the hierarchy must be satisfied before progressing to those higher up. The first four layers, grouped as basic and psychological needs, are classed as ‘deficiency’ or ‘d’ needs. The top level, self-actualisation / self-fulfilment needs, are ‘growth’ or ‘b’ needs. In basic, Psychology 101 terms, deficiency needs motivate us when they’re unmet, while growth needs come from a desire to grow, rather than being something you are actually missing.
In bid world, basic needs are those basic client requirements they must have you fulfil e.g., you hold x accreditation, can provide/already have a building to house the contact centre, or can demonstrate your commitment to health and safety. All the ‘things’ your client has to have to function.
Psychological needs encompass how the client needs you to involve their staff and/or customers, to give them something they need. For example, your software will provide an online portal for customers to easily make contact and manage their account, you will demonstrate a commitment to training staff (particularly in customer service skills, which will again deliver a secondary benefit), or you’ll establish a reward and recognition structure. At these levels, the client is looking for how you’ll bring value to the relationship, and make a difference to its people (again, staff and customers).
For some bidding organisations, this may be where they stop on their journey up the pyramid. But what about what the client hasn’t verbalised/documented? What about those benefits you know your solution will provide to them and which no-one else can deliver?
These are the growth needs, perhaps unwritten and unthought of, but which will deliver real value and prove to the evaluator why your solution is the only choice. Identify how your solution benefits the client at the start of the bid process, devise themes and messaging which can be played back to the client throughout your response.
Give them something different to think about. Something only you can deliver and which may be the difference between a shortlist and a win. Use psychology!
If you’ve ever studied a social science, psychology or business management discipline, or taken any organisational teamwork training, chances are you’re already aware of Belbin’s team roles and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Both have a strong crossover to bid management*. Their application is extremely useful in understanding what is happening in your bid teams, how you respond to a bid, and in identifying any issues and areas for improvement. In part one of this blog, we’re looking at Belbin’s team roles model and its application to internal bid teams.
Internal: Belbin’s Team Roles
Belbin’s team roles model is often used in team-building exercises where you complete a quiz to work out your team characteristics and how well you work together. For anyone unfamiliar, the below diagram shows the nine roles, their strengths, and “allowable weaknesses” (basically an inversion of the strength):
It’s important to understand that you don’t need nine people in a team to perform each of the roles – we’re often a mix of primary and secondary characteristics.
When I previously completed the quiz, I was – probably unsurprisingly given my profession and to anyone who has worked with me – a primary Completer Finisher, and secondary Monitor Evaluator. You may have the Co-ordinator role in there instead. These three roles provide many of the key skills for a Bid Manager: maintaining awareness of the priorities and deadlines, encouraging the team, ensuring a high quality response by proof-reading and correcting issues, reviewing content coming in and identifying gaps, and getting the response across the line. Worry and be anxious? Never……….
During a bid, you’ll work alongside many, if not all, of these roles. Your Resource Investigator may be your Account or BD Manager, who knows the client well and initially brings the opportunity in, pushing for its pursuit. No doubt you’ll rely on some Specialists to produce technical input, and have the Teamworkers and Implementers who just put their heads down and get on with drafting content or designing graphics. And how many of us have worked with Plants and Shapers – maybe your MD, CFO, or Sponsor. Those who kick things off, gee the team up, leave you with a great idea, and then disappear off into the night until sign off time when you just can’t get the solution to add up? Can you recognise these roles (or personalities) in your bid teams?
Do you have a balance in your bid team; are you too ‘heavy’ in a particular area, or are there any gaps? While working on a bid, it’s vital we have a combination of roles, since there’s such a mix of tasks and responsibilities which require different skillsets. Successful bid teams have this mix, even if you don’t realise it at the time.
If Belbin’s team roles model can help us look inwardly at our bid team, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs can help us really understand what is important to the client and to focus on the right areas in our response. We’ll cover this in part two, next week.
*In fact, in its more recent iterations, the APMP Body of Knowledge references Belbin amongst other traditionally social science models.
How many of us have, and use, Best Practice collateral, libraries or even standalone roles or departments? Some of the most commonly used Best Practice items are templates and checklists. These are great when you’re gathering or using standard information, but the moment you get into customer/client specifics, it’s a dangerous track to take and can actually lead to more work.
The handover from bid to delivery is a great example of this. While there may be a list of ‘usual’ steps to schedule or action, chances are not every client will need or do things in the same way. A previous firm called it the ‘100 day plan’, and key components included introduce the team, issue team chart, agree communication frequency/method, set up reporting, set up secure extranet etc.
At this level, a template/checklist works well. It can provide an aide memoire to the handover process, and can be shared across the organisation to ensure a new (or returning/refreshed) client is set up as per your protocols and learning.
However, what if we take it down a level. Would you set up a meeting agenda, or reporting template for example? This is where it becomes more of a ‘grey area’.
Take reporting. Most, if not every, client will require slightly different reporting based on their sector, product/service, organisation structure or even just personal preference. They may detail this as a standalone requirement during the bid process, or you may not know until you have that first meeting. It’s impossible to create a one-size-fits-all template in advance that would cater for every client.
Of course, you could create a basic report template to include in the bid, or – to really wow them – a more detailed version you’ve delivered for another client. However, are you making a rod for your own back? What if the basic template is “fine, but we just need a few tweaks”, and those few tweaks take your IT/MI/Finance teams as long to process as starting from a blank page? What if the client was expecting, and perfectly happy with, a basic report – until they saw the all-singing all-dancing version? And what if you’d worked with the previous client to develop that report, so there is shared IP?
What is more important is that your organisation takes the learning from the bid process into those first telephone calls and kick-off workshops. You can show the client you’ve really listened and understood them, and want to work with them to shape your relationship. Use a checklist as a springboard for the basics, by all means; but listening, learning and collaborating should be the best practice, rather than Best Practice templates for templates sake.
We ran a poll on LinkedIn this week asking at what point bid professionals write their Executive Summaries. The options were: before the RFP is released, after the RFP is released but prior to the bid kick off, when the bid draft is 90% or fully completed, or at another point (inviting comments). There were 127 votes, and the results made for interesting reading!
The majority (65%) said they write the Exec Summary when the bid draft is almost or fully complete. A combined 24% said it was either before or just after the RFP release – either way, before any “full on” bid work has commenced. For those respondents who said it was at another point (10%), some insightful comments were shared:
After bid launch, while the strategy is evolving.
Ideally during and after first draft is finished…[it] should be written by the person directly in contact with the customer.
Before, then again on receipt of tender and again at 90% / red review…you always discover something throughout the process.
Before the first technical review.
After the Pink Team review, when I have a full sense of all the challenges of the project.
Although almost two-thirds of respondents said they write the Exec Summary towards the end of the process, best practice is actually to write the Exec Summary before the RFP is released, or as early as possible in the bid planning stage. Does that surprise those of you who leave it until the end?
According to the APMP Body of Knowledge (BOK) “a draft executive summary should be developed early during the opportunity/capture planning phase. It provides a roadmap for the rest of the opportunity/capture plan.” The BOK suggests the Exec Summary should be drafted by (and owned throughout the process by) the Opportunity Manager*, since they are often closest to the customer – as suggested by one of the responses in our poll. It should be part of the ‘pack’ brought to bid decision gate reviews and the bid kick-off, and used to gain senior internal approval for the bid approach.
The timing does make sense. Even at this early stage, you should already know the main benefits and USPs of your solution versus your competitors; and you should know the customer well enough to understand how your solution provides real benefit to them. Of course, there are always those ‘take a punt’ bids you may not have fully prepared for. There may be slight differences between customers in different sectors or those with truly specific requirements; but even then, you should understand your solution well enough to quickly document the benefits and value, and determine whether the opportunity is worth pursuing. The BOK goes further “If you’re not prepared to write the executive summary early, you probably aren’t ready to bid and should consider a no-bid.”
The Exec Summary should, as set out in the BOK and in some of our received comments, drive your bid response strategy, not simply summarise your offering. It should set out your understanding of the customer’s challenges (their “hot buttons”), and put forward your value proposition, key win themes and discriminators to convince the customer to choose you, showing how you’ll meet their challenges. It should demonstrate the benefits of choosing your solution, not the technical components of the solution itself.
The Exec Summary should provide a baseline to help your bid team write the response, outlining the key messages and benefits to underpin your solution – ensuring even when different people write different sections, the same messaging is used. That means it should be a concise, persuasive, compelling start to your bid submission – clearly showing the customer evaluator why your solution is the best choice, providing benefits specific to their requirements.
That’s not to say you should write the Exec Summary at the start and forget about it. It should be reviewed when the RFP is issued to take account of any new client requirements, and throughout to ensure the right messages are being conveyed or to take account of any solution changes. As some of our poll respondents commented, you always discover something or learn more about the challenges through the bid process.
If you currently leave the Exec Summary until late in the process, try writing it early and see if the process, and submission, is improved. Or if you even continue to bid.
* In your organisation, the Opportunity Manager might be the Account Manager, Client Relationship Manager, Sales Lead or a BD/Bid Manager.
On 27 December 2014, Tommy Caldwell and Kevin Jorgeson began the first ever free climb of El Capitan’s ‘Dawn Wall’ (Yosemite National Park). As I recently re-watched the documentary covering their amazing feat*, I was struck by the similarities between their challenge and the bid process. The latter with, hopefully, less physical pain and hanging off a wall for days on end.
Tommy has completed more routes on El Capitan than any other climber, including numerous first free climb ascents**. He is its incumbent. Over seven years, he spent months climbing and analysing the Dawn Wall, attempting to map a route through the hardest free climb route in the world. Looking up at the Wall, it seems impossible; and many said it was. A vast expanse of apparently blank rock. But Tommy looked between the “known lines”, the existing climbing routes, finding the path (a series of pitches – told you there are similarities!) through the maze. He knew he couldn’t achieve the climb on his own, hence partnering with Kevin.
Does this remind you of anything?! You know a bid is coming out. Maybe you’re the incumbent, the challenger or, like Tommy and Kevin on the Dawn Wall, it’s a brand new opportunity. You prepare; researching the target, and gathering evidence. You receive the bid papers. You comprehend the requirement. You read, read and read again; looking for every small nuance for how you can wind a path through the submission and win the bid. You have no idea where to start. Just a blank page. You know you can’t meet all the requirements yourself, so you reach out within the business, or team up with a third party. Some stakeholders or contributors might think we can’t do it. But we’re going for it.
Day 1 on the Wall. Tommy and Kevin take in the 3,000 feet of sheer granite ahead of them, adrenaline pumping, can’t wait to get started. Day 1 on the Bid, it’s the kick off workshop – the whole team is enthusiastic, raring to go. Win themes decided, production plan shared. Of their attempt, Kevin said “this was Tommy’s world – he had a clear vision of what it should be…I could never tell if we were wasting our time or in pursuit of something grand.” Of our attempt, it’s the Bid Manager leading the team on the vision, the journey to win.
By Day 3, reality has hit. You’ve been drafting content outlines, holding daily progress calls, issuing plans and answering queries non-stop. It’s all-consuming. Back on the Wall? Tommy says he’s “gonna wake Kevin up with some coffee”. Yep, I hear you. Already, spectators have started to gather, watching their progress. For us? Senior Management and Board members are starting to show interest.
On Day 4, Tommy and Kevin are hit by a 70mph snow and windstorm. The portaledge on which they rest and sleep is repeatedly bounced against the wall. It’s chaos. Yet Tommy, grinning, says “I don’t know what’s wrong with me, but I love this sh*t”. How many of us feel that way about bids?! They can be stressful, even terrifying at times. Ideas and content flying everywhere. But we keep going. Many of us in this career for the long-haul.
Day 8, and Tommy and Kevin have reached pitch 15, the sideways traverse. A sequence of tiny movements over seemingly smooth rock, each to be completed perfectly to make it across. A few false starts, then for Tommy, “it just came together in this amazing, magical way”.
On the Bid? It’s content deadline day, sections start coming in and you have a jigsaw to fit together. Somehow, the response appears.
Word begins to spread, and on the Wall, Day 9 marks the media phone calls, wanting to chat with Tommy about how it’s going. For us, it’s often our stakeholders, checking in. About a week later, Tommy “accidentally” drops his phone – those around him seem to think it was no accident. I’m guessing a lot of us would share that frustration when we just want to get on with the bid but our stakeholders, partners, Board want updates.
Pitch 16 on the Wall is Tommy’s next big problem. There is nothing to grab onto – the only way across is to leap. But then, staring at the Wall, he sees another way; he can down-climb and go around it. Problem solved. How many times do clarification questions seem like a showstopper? Or a resource/technology issue appears we hadn’t thought about? We work our way around, solving the problems and getting back on track. Or we might have a team member like Kevin, who, having previously been stuck on the traverse pitch for nearly a week, makes the leap. A spark of inspiration.
2,000 feet up the Dawn Wall is a landmark known as “Wino Tower” – a lump of rock, marking the first point you can sit (or lie) on the whole route. For the Bid team, we’re 2.5 weeks through, and most of the hard work is done. The content is in and a full draft written. You might be waiting for the red team review or design work to be complete, but you can sit (or stand, or lie) and breathe. And, maybe take the “Wino” part fairly literally by this point…
Day 19, and Tommy and Kevin are enjoying their last day on the Wall. They pull themselves over the edge to the top of El Cap, crowds watching live and cheering them on. They’ve done it. The team has made it, despite how unlikely that seemed at times. For us, it’s submission day. Your MD is over your shoulder, watching as you upload, then maybe popping the champagne. The Bid team has that feeling of euphoria when you submit. You’ve all worked so hard for it.
But, as Tommy says, it’s almost bittersweet, because the experience is over. Till the next bid, and the next climb. For Tommy and Kevin, they go home, see their loved ones, and get some rest and motivation for the next climb. I think we’d agree.
*The Dawn Wall, 2017, dir: Josh Lowell and Peter Mortimer. If you haven’t seen it, what are you waiting for?! I also highly recommend the Oscar-winning, equally amazing and somehow more terrifying Free Solo (2018, dir: Jimmy Chin and Elizabeth Chai Vasarhelyi) documenting Alex Honnold (Tommy’s friend and fellow climber) attempting the first free solo, i.e. without ropes, harnesses or safety equipment, of El Capitan.
**https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tommy_Caldwell Free climbing is driven by your own body, often just fingertips and toes (and in Tommy’s case, nine fingertips as he’s missing his left index finger!) You secure ropes as anchors along each pitch to hopefully prevent you falling, but they don’t help you climb the pitch.